Church. The Avignon Papacy ended in 1376 when the pope returned to Rome, 318 but was followed in 1378 by the 38-year-long Western schism, with claimants to the papacy in Rome, Avignon and (after 1409) Pisa. 159 If a new-born child is in a danger of death, anyonebe it a doctor, a nurse, or a parentmay baptise the child. 318 The matter was largely resolved in 1415-17 at the Council of Constance, with the claimants in Rome and Pisa agreeing to resign and the third claimant excommunicated by the cardinals, who held a new election naming Martin V pope. Historically, boys and men have only been permitted to serve as altar servers; however, since the 1990s, girls and women have also been permitted. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Earlier splits within the church occurred after the Council of Ephesus (431) and the Council of Chalcedon (451). The Churches which, while not existing in perfect Koinonia with the Catholic Church, remain united to her by means of the closest bonds, that is, by apostolic succession and a valid Eucharist, are true particular Churches. The church condemned the 1939 Invasion of Poland that started World War II and other subsequent wartime Nazi invasions. 81 82 It teaches that revelation has one common source, God, and two distinct modes of transmission: Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition, 83 84 and that these are authentically interpreted by the Magisterium. 196 197 An attempt at remarriage following divorce without a declaration of nullity places "the remarried spouse.